Ambroxol: Uses, Dosage, Side Effects and Interactions

Description of Ambroxol

Ambroxol is the active metabolite of bromhexine and it has been proven that this metabolite possesses greater broncho secretolytic effect than bromhexine. It improves sputum theology by hydrating mechanisms leading to liquefaction of mucus in the lumen of respiratory tract, thus facilitating expectoration of mucus and reducing dyspnea. It stimulates production of phospholipid of surfactant by alveolar cells, thus contributing to the lowering of superficial tension in the alveoli. It also reduces bronchial type-reactivity. has Ambroxol anti-inflammatory properties owing to the inhibitory effect on the production of cellular cytokines and arachidonic acid metabolites.

After oral administration Ambroxol absorbed rapidly, and it undergoes first pass metabolism through the liver (bioavailability 70%). Half life is approximately 9-10 hours & Ambroxol is excreted in the urine in the form of different inactive metabolites.

Indications and Uses of Ambroxol

What is Ambroxol used for?

  • Productive cough
  • Acute and chronic inflammatory disorders of respiratory tracts concomitant with formation of viscous and hardly separated expectoration
  • Acute and chronic inflammatory disease of rhinopharyngeal tract (laryngitis, pharyngitis, sinusitis and rhinitis) associated with viscid mucus
  • Asthmatic bronchitis, bronchial asthma with thick, hard expectoration
  • Bronchiectasis Chronic pneumonia.
  • It is one of drugs candidates being tried for Covid-19 treatment.

Dosage and Administration of Ambroxol

What is the dosage of Ambroxol?

Adults: daily dose of 30 mg to 120 mg tablet of Ambroxol taken in 2 to 3 divided doses.
Children up to 2 years: half a teaspoonful Ambroxol syrup twice daily.
Children 2 – 5 years: half a teaspoonful Ambroxol syrup 3 times daily.
Children over 5 years: One teaspoonful Ambroxol syrup 2-3 times daily.

Paediatric drops: 0-6 months old:0.5 ml, 2 times a day 6-12 months old : 1 ml, 2 times a day 1-2 years old : 1.25 ml, 2 times a day.

Ambroxol is preferably taken after meal

Contraindications of Ambroxol

When should Ambroxol not be used?

  • Gastroduodenal ulcer
  • Hypersensitivity to any component of the preparation.

Adverse Effects of Ambroxol

What are the side or adverse effects of Ambroxol?

Ambroxol is well tolerable, however, rarely allergic responses such as skin eruption, urticaria or angioneurotic edema may occur.

When used for a long time, epigastric pain, stomach overfill feeling cannot be excluded.

Drug Interaction of Ambroxol

Ambroxol should not be taken simultaneously with antitussives (e.g.Codeine) because phlegm, which has been liquefied by Ambroxol might not be expectorated.

Pharmaceutical Precautions

Keep out of the reach of children. Keep in a dry place, below 30°C. Protect from light.