Parolene Bz lotion uses, dosage, side effects and composition

Description and composition of Parolene Bz lotion

Parolene Bz is lotion that contains Benzoyl peroxide as its active ingredient.  When applied, Parolene Bz releases free radicals.

It has mild keratolytic effect and antimicrobial activity due to release of free-radical oxygen which oxidizes bacterial protein.

It is active against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes.

Benzoyl peroxide is a topical treatment for acne that generates free radicals to break down comedones and increase the rate of epithelial cell turnover.

It has a short duration of action as its active free radical metabolites quickly react to form inactive metabolites. The therapeutic index is wide, as overdoses are rare, however patients may still experience skin peeling.

Patients should be counselled regarding increased risks of skin irritation, dryness, and sunburn.

Benzoyl peroxide is a topical treatment for acne that generates free radicals to break down comedones and increase the rate of epithelial cell turnover.

It has a short duration of action as its active free radical metabolites quickly react to form inactive metabolites.

The therapeutic index is wide, as overdoses are rare, however patients may still experience skin peeling.

Patients should be counselled regarding increased risks of skin irritation, dryness, and sunburn.

Uses of Parolene Bz

It is a topical therapy for the treatment of acne vulgaris, acne, and inflammatory acne vulgaris

How Parolene Bz works

Acne vulgaris is caused by inflammation in the pilosebaceous gland.

Acne is generally caused by increased excretion of sebum from pilosebaceous glands, endocrine factors such as androgenic hormones, keratin developing around follicles, bacterial growth, and inflammation.

These factors contribute to the formation of comedones (whiteheads and blackheads).

The peroxide bond of benzoyl peroxide is cleaved to form 2 benzoyloxy radicals.

These radicals interact nonspecifically with bacterial proteins, interfering with their function, and survival of the bacteria.

Over time, free radical interactions with bacterial proteins lead to decreased keratin and sebum around follicles.

Benzoyl peroxide can also increase the turnover rate of epithelial cells, leading to skin peeling, and breaking down comedones.

Dosage of Parolene Bz

Adult: As 2.5-10% preparation: Apply 1-2 times daily after cleansing, may gradually increase to tid if needed. Start with lower strength preparations.

As cleanser: Wash 1-2 times daily.

Child: ≥12 yr Same as adult dose.

Side effects of Parolene Bz lotion

The major adverse reaction reported to date with Parolene Bz cutaneous therapy is irritation of the skin including erythema, burning, peeling, dryness, itching, stinging, feeling of skin tension locally at the site of application.

This is reversible when treatment is reduced in frequency or discontinued. Allergic contact dermatitis, including face oedema, may occur.

Toxicity

Data regarding overdoses of benzoyl peroxide are not readily available.

During an overdose patients may experience and increased risk or severity of adverse effects such as skin itching, burning, peeling, inflammation, and erythema.

The oral LD50 in rats is 490 mg/kg.

Precaution

Children, Pregnancy and lactation.

Interaction

There is no known interaction with other medications which might be used cutaneously and concurrently with Parolene Bz; however, drugs with desquamative, irritant and drying effects should not be used concurrently with Parolene Bz gel.

Elimination route

In a sample of excised skin, 1.9% of a radiolabelled topical dose fully penetrates the skin, and 2.6% remains in the skin.

The radiolabelled dose that fully penetrates the skin is recovered as benzoic acid, while the dose in the skin is approximately half benzoic acid and half benzoyl peroxide.

95.5% of a radiolabelled dose is not absorbed or metabolized after 8 hours.

Benzoyl peroxide’s metabolite benzoic acid, is eliminated in the urine. Data regarding fecal elimination is not readily available.

Pregnancy & Breastfeeding use

Parolene Bz lotion is in Pregnancy Category C.

Either studies in animals have revealed adverse effects on the fetus (teratogenic or embryocidal or other) and there are no controlled studies in women or studies in women and animals are not available.

Drugs should be given only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Contraindication

Parolene Bz gel is contra-indicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to Parolene Bz.

Acute Overdose

Parolene Bz gel is a preparation indicated for topical treatment only.

If the medication is applied excessively, no more rapid or better results will be obtained and severe irritation might develop.

In this event, treatment must be discontinued and appropriate symptomatic therapy should be instituted.

Storage

Store in a cool and dry place, protected from light. Keep out of the reach of children.

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