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What is Dementia? Dementia is a condition which involves progressive and cognitive deficits. It usually affects memory first, with subsequent progression to cause dysphasia, agnosia, apraxia, diminished ability with executive function and eventually personality disintegration. Causes of Dementia It is caused by damage to or loss of nerve cells and their connections in the brain. …

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Fournier\’s gangrene

What is is a Fournier\’s gangrene? Fournier\’s Gangrene is an acute fulminant polymicrobial necrotising fascitis or gangrene affecting the scrotum and sometimes extending to the perineum, penis and lower abdomen. It is also called idiopathic gangrene of the scrotum. The synergistic infections of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria coupled with obliterative arteritis results in the extensive …

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Acute Epididymo-orchitis

Acute Epididymo-orchitis is an acute inflammation of the epididymis and testis usually due to a bacterial infection. It may follow ascending infection from the urethra (including STIS), instrumentation/catheterization, untreated lower urinary tract obstruction and genito-urinary surgery. It is a known complication of mumps. Poorly managed acute epididymo-orchitis may be complicated by septicaemia, abscess formation, chronic …

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Vasectomy (Male Sterilisation)

Introduction to Vasectomy (Male Sterilisation) Vasectomy (male sterilisation) is a permanent male contraceptive method, which is a simple, short and safe surgical procedure. It is carried out by trained surgeons usually under local anaesthesia after careful counselling and informed consent. Vasectomy is the most effective male family planning method. Involving males in issues of reproductive …

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Nephrotic Syndrome

Nephrotic syndrome is associated with proteinuria in excess of 3-3.5 g/1.73 m² daily accompanied by hyperlipidaemia, oedema, hypoalbuminaemia, and hypercoagulable state. Diuretics should be used with caution and not given as a routine in children with nephrotic syndrome. Causes of Nephrotic syndrome The causes of nephrotic syndrome are generally grouped into: Primary glomerular disease Infections …

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Acute Glomerulonephritis

Acute glomerulonephritis is a disease characterised by damage to the glomerular filtration apparatus, which causes protein and blood to leak into the urine. Mechanisms for the glomerular damage may be immune-mediated. This condition may be associated with hypertension and fluid retention. Causes of Acute Glomerulonephritis The following are some of the known causes of acute …

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