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DENTAL & ORAL DISORDERS

Temporo-mandibular Joint Disorders

Introduction Temporomandibular Joint disorders can be grouped under the following conditions: Temporo-Mandibular Joint (TMJ) pain dysfunction syndrome Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Trauma. Developmental defects Ankylosis Infection Neoplasia TMJ pain dysfunction syndrome The most common problem in or around the TMJ Clinical features and symptoms of Temporo-mandibular Joint Disorders Equal frequency between genders, but five times as …

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Neoplasms of the salivary gland treatment guideline

Introduction Neoplasms of the salivary gland is the next most common neoplasms of the mouth after squamous cell carcinomas [PSI] Above 70% develop in the parotid gland Over three-quarters are benign Women are slightly more frequently affected Classification The modified WHO classification (1972) includes: Epithelial tumours Adenomas: Pleomorphic adenoma (\’mixed tumour\’) Monomorphic adenomas Warthin\’s tumour, …

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Mumps

What is mumps? Mumps is a painful non-erythematous swelling of one or both parotid glands, occurring 1 – 2 weeks following exposure to the causative virus. Epidemiology Most common in children aged 6-8 years with epidemics occurring during winter and spring, before the onset of routine vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella. Symptoms of mumps …

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Salivary gland diseases

Introduction Salivary gland diseases are a wide spectrum of disorders. Examples of them include mumps, Xerostomia, Sialadenitis, Neoplasms of the salivary gland and Sjogren\’s syndrome. They are diseases due to Obstruction Salivary calculi Parotid papilla and duct strictures Salivary fistulae Mucoceles and cysts Ranula 1. Sialadenitis Sialadenitisis an acute infection and inflammation of the salivary …

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Pulpitis

What is pulpitis? Pulpitis is an inflammation of the dental pulp. It is the single most important disease process affecting the dental pulp. It accounts for virtually all pulpal disease of any clinical significance. Symptoms of pulpitis Pain which is difficult to localize The pain may radiate to the adjacent jaw and occasionally to the …

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Juvenile periodontitis

What is Juvenile Periodontitis? Juvenile periodontitis is an uncommon condition characterized by severe loss of attachment and destruction of alveolar bone around one or more permanent teeth in otherwise healthy adolescent. This happens often in the absence of overt gingival inflammation. Epidemiology Prevalence rate of this case is 1:1000; occurrence in male is equivalent to …

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Periodontitis

What is Periodontitis? Periodontitis is an inflammatory condition of the periodontium: periodontal ligament, cementum, alveolar bone, gingivae. Classification of Periodontitis Acute periodontitis Chronic periodontitis Juvenile periodontitis Other sub-classifications 1. Acute periodontitis:  This type is relatively uncommon It is usually of of short duration It may be due to trauma, abscess or ulceration It is characterized …

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Pericoronitis

What is Pericoronitis? Pericoronitis is an inflammatory condition of the operculum or gum flap around a partially erupted/impacted tooth. It is common around the lower last molars or wisdom teeth. Upper canine may also be affected. Classification of Pericoronitis Pericoronitis can be classified into: Subacute Acute Chronic Acute-on-chronic Causes of Pericoronitis Mixed microbial infection Food …

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Oral Thrush (oral candidiasis)

Introduction Oral Thrush (Candidiasis) is a clinical infection of mucous membranes due to the fungus species Candida. Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated strain. Classification of oral thrush Acute oral candidasis Chronic oral candidasis Denture association candidasis/ denture stomatitis Pathogenesis/aetiology of oral thrush Immunosupression results in the Candida albicans (a normal oral commensal) becoming …

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Plaque induced gingivitis

What is plaque induced gingivitis? Plaque-induced Gingivitis is an inflammatory response of the gingivae to plaque bacteria. The most common type of this is chronic marginal gingivitis. Symptoms and clinical features of gingivitis Chronic gingivitis is asymptomatic, low-grade inflammation of the gingivae Gums become red slightly swollen and bleed on slight touch Treatment for plaque …

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Dental caries

What is Dental caries Dental Caries is a progressive bacterial breakdown of teeth exposed to the carbohydrate and bacterial plaque. Classification of dental caries Enamel caries Dentine caries Root surface caries Causes of dental caries It develops over time in the presence of certain interacting variables including: Carbohydrate diet Viridans streptococci bacteria Susceptible tooth surface …

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Alveolar / Dry Socket Osteitis

Introduction Alveolar/Dry Socket Osteitis is the most frequent painful complication of extractions caused by destruction of the clot that normally fills the socket. Predisposing factors Excessive extraction trauma Limited local blood supply Local anaesthesia Oral contraceptives Osteosclerotic disease Radiotherapy Female gender Symptoms and clinical features of alveolar osteitis Pain delayed for few days up to …

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Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis

Definition Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis is a polymicrobial, endogenous infection. Causes of acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis This condition is caused by Fusiform and spirochaete bacteria. Epidemiology In developing countries, seen almost exclusively in children Related to poverty and malnutrition (predisposing factors) In industrialized countries, most common in young adults with neglected mouths; smoking and stress …

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