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EYE DISORDERS

Wilms tumour

Introduction Wilms tumour (nephroblastoma) is a malignant embryonal tumour of renal tissue. About 80% of children with Wilms tumour present before 5 years of age. It can present soon after delivery. It may be associated with congenital anomalies such as hemihypertrophy and the absence of the iris (aniridia). Wilms tumour has a very good prognosis …

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Retinoblastoma

Introduction Retinoblastoma is a congenital malignant tumour originating from the retina of the eye. This tumour may be hereditary, particularly the bilateral form which forms about 30% of cases. Most tumours however are sporadic (spontaneous mutation). This is the third commonest cancer seen amongst children in developing countries. Most children present before five years of …

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Strabismus

Introduction Strabismus is misalignment usually of one eye preventing simultaneous viewing of an object by both eyes. Onset in children under 7 years interferes with the development of the visual system of the deviating eye in the brain leading to amblyopia. Acute onset at an older age causes double vision. Diplopia does not occur in …

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Xerophthalmia

Introduction The term Xerophthalmia refers to the spectrum of progressive eye diseases under Vitamin A deficiency. It ranges from night blindness to conjunctival xerosis, to Bitot\’s spots, corneal xerosis and finally keratomalacial Clinical features Night blindness Dryness of the conjunctiva and cornea (xerosis) Tearing Bitot\’s spots Corneal degeneration (keratomalacia) Differential diagnosis Measles keratoconjunctivitis Complications Corneal …

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Trachoma

Introduction Trachoma is an infection of the eyes by a bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. It is the leading preventable cause of blindness worldwide and very contagious. The organism is found in the conjunctival as well as corneal epithelium and is responsible for two different conditions: Trachoma (a severe disease) Inclusion conjunctivitis (milder) Trachoma is commonly associated …

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Ophthalmia Neonatorum (Neonatal Conjunctivitis)

Introduction Ophthalmia Neonatorum is infection in both eyes of a newborn baby in the first one month of life, without obstruction of the nasolacrimal ducts. It is an acute emergency and requires immediate treatment and referral because of the significant risk of corneal perforation and intraocular infection that can lead to blindness. Clinical features Swollen …

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Infective Conjunctivitis (Pinkeye)

Introduction The commonest cause of a red eye is infective conjunctivitis, which could be caused by bacteria or viruses. Conjunctivitis occurs when the conjunctiva of the eye becomes inflamed. Clinical features Red eye (generalized) Eye discharge: purulent or catarrhal, worse on waking from sleep Eye discomfort: grittiness Photophobia: mild Swollen eyelids in ophthalmia neonatorum Aetiology …

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Glaucoma

Introduction The glaucomas are a group of diseases in which there is gradual loss of vision (actually visual field) due to a form of optic neuropathy in which raised intraocular pressure is a risk factor. Glaucoma is a common cause of blindness worldwide and once a patient is blind from glaucoma, vision cannot be restored. …

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Eye Injuries

Introduction Eye injury is a broad term used to describe a physical or chemical wound to the eye or eye socket. Injuries to the eye could be caused by blunt or sharp objects or chemicals Aetiology Blunt injuries e.g. a fist or a ball hitting the eye Sharp injuries e.g. glass, metal, broom sticketc Chemicals …

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Cataract

Introduction Cataract is the opacification or clouding of the crystalline lens. It is the commonest cause of blindness and low vision in the world. Aetiology Congenital e.g. Rubella, Toxoplasmosis. Developmental: Senile occurs with ageing Secondary e.g. Traumatic, Diabetic, Drug induced, post uveitic etc. Clinical features Gradual, painless loss of vision In the early stages, it …

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