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INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Haemophilus influenzae type B disease

Introduction The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) bacterium is an important cause of infections such as acute bacterial meningitis, pneumonia, acute epiglottitis and otitis media in children less than 5 years old. Haemophilus influenzae type b disease infections are preventable by the five-in-one (penta-) vaccine. This infections are not common beyond 5 years of age. …

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Yellow fever

Introduction Yellow fever is caused by a virus transmitted to man by a species of mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) from infected monkeys. The disease is not spread from person to person. Classical yellow fever is usually fatal. After the onset of symptoms, there is a brief remission of 2-24 hours, following which the symptoms may recur …

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Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

  Click on the image to read PDF (WHO HIV guidelines) Introduction Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a retrovirus, which infects primarily CD4 T cells (T helper cells). Infection leads to a progressive destruction of the immune system with a consequent myriad of opportunistic infections and the development of certain malignancies. Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome …

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Malaria

Introduction Malaria is an infectious protozoan disease transmitted by the female Anopheles mosquito. It is a major public and private health problem and indeed a cause and consequence of national underdevelopment. Five species of the parasite cause the disease in humans: Plasmodium falciparum, P. malariae, P. vivax, P. ovale and P.knowlesi Plasmodium falciparum is a …

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Rabies

Introduction Rabies is an acute disease of the CNS caused by a bullet-shaped rhabdovirus that affects all mammals. The virus is a single-stranded RNA virus found in animals, in all regions as urban rabies or sylvatic rabies. It is transmitted by infected secretions, usually saliva. Most exposures are through bites of an infected animal; occasionally …

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Tetanus

Introduction Tetanus is an infection caused by a bacterium called Clostridium tetani.  It affects the nerves and causes painful muscle spasms and can lead to death. It is a common, infectious disease affecting individuals of all ages and sexes, particularly the socio-economically deprived. A neurologic disorder characterized by increased muscle tone and spasm that is …

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Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness)

Introduction Human African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is a vector-borne parasitic disease. It is caused by infection with protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Trypanosoma. They are transmitted to humans by tsetse fly (Glossina genus) bites which have acquired their infection from human beings or from animals harbouring human pathogenic parasites. Clinical features …

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Typhoid Fever

Introduction Typhoid fever is a systemic disease characterized by fever and abdominal pain, caused by dissemination of Salmonella typhi S. paratyphi. It is transmitted only through close contact with acutely infected individuals or chronic carriers (from ingestion of contaminated food or water) Incidence of chronic carriage is higher among women and persons with biliary abnormalities: …

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Helminthiasis (Worm infection)

Introduction Parasitic worm infestations can arise from different groups: Nematodes (round worms) Ascaris Ancylostoma (hookworm) Enterobius (pinworm) Trichiuris (whipworm) Cestodes (flat worms/tapeworms) Taenia solium and T. saginata Trematodes (flukes) Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni Round worm infestations are associated with rural living and poor hygiene. It is prevalent among school children and young adults. It …

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Food Poisoning

Introduction Food poisoning is a  spectrum of disorders arising from: Infections acquired by eating contaminated food Clinical problems that result from eating food contaminated with toxins Clinical sequelae from inherently poisonous animals, plants or mushrooms Clinical forms: Staphylococcal food poisoning: Food is contaminated by S. aureus when prepared unhygienically by individuals who are carriers Subsequent …

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Fever

What is fever? A fever is an increase in body temperature above normal in response to an infection, inflammation, drug reactions, or other disease conditions such as cancer and arthritis. In figure, an oral and rectal temperature measurements of 38ºC and 38.2ºC  respectively or more is fever. Fever is also called a high temperature, hyperthermia, …

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