Cervical Cancer

Introduction to Cervical Cancer Cervical Cancer or carcinoma of the cervix is the commonest form of female genital cancer in developing countries. While the disease is preventable, absence of an effective screening system results in most cases presenting late with advanced disease. In developed countries, the incidence of cervical cancer has fallen considerably due to …

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Introduction to Menopause Menopause refers to the point in time when permanent cessation of menstruation occurs due to loss of ovarian function. The cessation of menses is preceded by a peri-menopausal phase during which there may be menstrual irregularity. The age at onset is usually between 45 and 55 years. A woman is considered to …

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Acute Lower Abdominal Pain

Introduction acute lower abdominal pain Acute lower abdominal pain in a woman may have several causes. These include Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID), ruptured ectopic pregnancy and septic abortion. The latter two are surgical emergencies, which require extreme urgency in their management (See  \’Ectopic Pregnancy\’ and \’Abortions\’). PID is caused by organisms which may be Sexually …

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Missed Abortion

Introduction Missed abortion refers to foetal death in-utero before 28 weeks gestation. Missed abortion is just one of different types of abortion. Others include complete abortion, septic abortion, safe abortion, missed abortion, inevitable abortion, incomplete abortion, threatened abortion etc. Symptoms of missed abortion The following are the symptoms of missed abortion: There is reversal of the …

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Septic Abortion

Introduction Septic abortion is a life threatening complication of abortion. Most often there is a history of criminal interference with the pregnancy. It may lead to complications such as septic shock, uterine damage, peritonitis, haemorrhage, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), acute renal failure, adult respiratory distress syndrome, tetanus or gas gangrene. We have different types of …

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