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RESPIRATORY DISEASES

Diphtheria

Introduction The bacteria responsible for this diphtheria produces a toxin that damages human body tissues and organs. It commonly affects the tonsils and sometimes the skin causing ulcers. It is spread mainly by respiratory droplets from person to person, and less commonly through skin contact. Infected patients may recover after initial symptoms and signs or …

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Pertussis

Introduction Pertussis is a highly contagious bacterial respiratory tract infection common in children and adults. The incubation period is 7-21 days. Complications of Pertussis Complications of Pertussis include: Subconjunctival haemorrhage Otitis media Apnoea Pneumonia Bronchiectasis Activation of latent tuberculosis Dehydration Fever Convulsions Rectal prolapse, and Malnutrition. Patients should be admitted to hospital when complications are …

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Pneumonia

Introduction Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung parenchyma caused by pathogenic microorganism. Various bacterial species, fungi and viruses may cause it. The setting in which infection is acquired could be a predictor of the infecting pathogen. Bacterial Pneumonia: is defined as bacterial infection of the lung parenchyma associated with recently developed radiological shadowing which …

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Non-obstructive Chronic Bronchitis (NCB)

Introduction Chronic bronchitis denotes chronic or recurrent bronchial mucus hyper secretion resulting in Chronic expectoration of sputum. For clinical or epidemiological purposes, the term is applied to patients who have coughed up sputum on most days during at least three consecutive months in two successive years. Non-obstructive Chronic bronchitis (NCB) In this condition, there is …

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Dyspnoea

Introduction Dyspnoea is an abnormal and uncomfortable awareness of breathing Effort of breathing is out of proportion with exertion needs. Patients often have difficulties in describing the discomfort of dyspnoea Clinical features Will depend on the underlying cause(s) of dyspnoea Differential diagnoses Pulmonary: Obstructive airways disease: asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema Parenchymal lung disease: pneumonia, pneumoconiosis, …

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Cough

Introduction Cough is the explosive expiration that clears the tracheo-bronchial tree of secretions and foreign particles or noxious gaseous materials. It is a defensive reflex reaction. It comes to medical attention only when it becomes troublesome, affects life style and/or when there is concern about its cause. Clinical features Cough may be: Acute or chronic …

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Chest Pain

Introduction Chest Pain is a common clinical symptom that may or may not have significant clinical implications. Clinical features (wth differential diagnoses) Sharp, lancinating lateral chest pain, worse with breathing and coughing: pleurisy Dull aching lateral chest pain: chest wall pain, pleural effusion Central chest pain precipitated by a dry harking cough: suggestive of tracheitis …

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Bronchiectasis

Introduction Bronchiectasis is an abnormal and permanent dilatation of medium sized airway due to damage of their walls. This usually arises from repeated bacterial or viral infections which result in inflammation and destruction of the structural components of the bronchial tree. It may be focal or diffuse. Bronchiectasis has both congenital or acquired causes. The …

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Chronic Obstructive Airways Diseasese (COAD)

Introduction Chronic obstructive airways diseasese (COAD) is a pulmonary disorder of adults characterized by chronic airflow limitation in the small airways. It complicates chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Obstruction to air flow is only partially reversible with bronchodilator therapy. Two extreme types of COAD are recognized although there is a lot of overlap. Clinical features This …

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Bronchial Asthma

Introduction Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that is characterized by hyper responsiveness of the tracheo-bronchial tree to a multiplicity of stimuli. Manifests physiologically by wide-spread airway narrowing and clinically by paroxysmal attacks of dyspnoea, cough and wheezing Acute episodes are interspersed with symptom-free periods Clinical features of bronchial asthma Episodic …

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Acute Rhinitis (Common Cold, Coryza)

Introduction Acute Rhinitis is an acute inflammation of the nasal mucosa with variable degrees of pharyngitis. Rhinoviruses are the commonest aetiologically important agents followed by the coronaviruses, the parainfluenza, RSV, influenza and adenoviruses in that order. Others include enteroviruses, rubella, varcella and possibly a sizeable group of undiscovered viruses. Clinical Features Systemic complaints are often …

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Acute Laryngo-Tracheo Bronchitis (Croup)

Introduction Acute Laryngo-Tracheo bronchitis is a respiratory infection of the upper and lower tract affecting children 2-3 years of age. It causes significant sub-glottic oedema Most common aetiology is parainfluenza virus infection preceded by an upper respiratory tract infection. Symptoms and clinical features of Croup Fever Hoarseness \’Bovine cough\’ Inspiratory stridor Differential diagnosis Acute epiglottitis …

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