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SKIN, HAIR, & NAIL DISORDERS

Intertrigo

What is intertrigo? Intertrigo is the term used to describe a rash in body folds or apposing skin surfaces such as axillae, groin, submammary regions, beneath an abdominal apron of fat, finger or toe web spaces. Intertrigo affected skin is reddened and uncomfortable. This condition is particularly common in those who are overweight and patients …

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Yaws

What is yaws? Yaws is a chronic infection by a bacterium that affects mainly the skin, bone and cartilage. Most people affected by this condition are children under 15 years of age but adults are not exempt. It is transmitted mainly through skin contact with an infected person. A single skin lesion develops at the …

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Erysipelas

Introduction Erysipelas is an acute superficial spreading infection commonly caused by Streptococci without pus formation. It could also be due to Gram negative bacilli. Symptoms and clinical presentation of erysipelas A prodrome of fever, chills, and malaise Locally, a large erythematous, swelling, well-demarcated, and usually raised lesion Regional adenopathy is frequent Superficial blistering secondary to …

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Vitiligo

Introduction Vitiligo is a disease characterized by acquired loss of melanocytes, leading to areas of depigmentation. It is sometimes associated with uveitis and other autoimmune phenomena. Many autoantibodies can be demonstrated in vitiligo patients; those against melanocytes may rarely be demonstrable. There is also a neural hypothesis. Vitiliginous patches often follow a dermatome. A neurochemical …

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Urticaria and angioedema

Introduction Urticaria And Angioedema is an eruption of evanescent wheals or hives which can result from many different stimuli on an immunologic or non-immunologic basis. The most common immunologic mechanism is hypersensitivity mediated by IgE. Another mechanism involves activation of the complement cascade. The activation of cutaneous mast cells and their release of mediators is …

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Pruritus

Introduction Pruritus is commonly known as itching. It is an uncomfortable, irritating sensation that creates an urge to scratch that can involve any part of the body. It is the most common unpleasant experience involving the skin; provokes a desire to scratch. It may be elicited by many normally occurring stimuli e.g. Light touch Temperature …

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Acne Vulgaris (Pimples)

Introduction Acne Vulgaris is one of the most common skin diseases. It is a disorder of the pilosebaceous follicles. Typically first appears during puberty when androgenic stimulation triggers excessive production of sebum. Many factors interact to produce acne in a given patient. These include: Genetics Sebum production Hormones Bacteria Properties of the sebaceous follicle Immunologic …

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Viral Warts (Verrucae)

Introduction Viral Warts is an infections caused by human papilloma viruses (HPV); include more than 80 types. Transferred between humans, or from animals to humans Cause cutaneous tumours which tend to regress spontaneously but may rarely progress into cutaneous malignancies Symptoms and Clinical features of viral warts Infection may be clinical, subclinical, or latent Clinical …

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Varicella (Chickenpox)

Introduction Varicella Zoster virus is Human Herpes Virus. Its transmission is by direct contact with the lesions and by the respiratory route. Initial replication occurs in the nasopharynx and conjunctivae. After the primary infection, the virus remains dormant in nervous tissue Reactivation later in life is typically manifested as Herpes zoster. Symptoms and clinical features …

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Molluscum Contagiosum

Introduction Molluscum Contagiosum is a common infection caused by a large epidermotropic pox virus. It is common in children and is Spread by direct human to human contact. In adults it is often transmitted during sexual intercourse. Symptoms and Clinical features of Molluscum Contagiosum Individual lesions are smooth-surfaced, firm, dome-shaped, pearly papules; average diameter 3-5 …

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Herpes Zoster (Shingles)

Introduction Herpes Zoster also known as shingles is a second infection with varicella-zoster virus (VZV), usually in adults and limited to a dermatome. It occurs with reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus, a chickenpox virus. Symptoms and Clinical features shingles Vesicles arranged in one or more dermatomes unilaterally Initial pruritus, pain and paraesthesia Multidermatomal and disseminated …

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Pityriasis Versicolor (Tinea Versicolor)

What is Pityriasis Versicolor? Pityriasis Versicolor is a superficial yeast infection of the skin caused by Malassezia furfur species (normal commensals on the skin) Predisposing factors: Common in warm humid climates Occlusion of the skin with pomades and Hyperhidrosis greases Immune suppression Heat Symptoms and clinical features of Pityriasis Versicolor Usually asymptomatic (or just mild …

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Dermatophyte infections (Tinea)

Introduction Dermatophyte Infections is a superficial fungal infection that affects keratinized tissues. Fungi that usually cause only superficial infections on the skin are called dermatophyte-classified in three genera: Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton It can be acquired from humans, animals, soil or vegetable matter. Common in tropical climate (which is hot and humid). Infection could be …

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