Zolat Uses, Dosage, Side Effects and Interactions

Description and composition of Zolat

Zolat is a benzimidazole carbamate with anthelmintic and antiprotozoal activity against intestinal and tissue parasites. It contains Albendazole as its active ingredient. It also contains other inactive ingredients called excipients in sufficient quantities.

Zolat has been shown to possess vermicidal, ovacidal and larvacidal activity.

Pharmacology

Zolat exerts its anthelmintic effect by inhibiting tubulin polymerization. This causes the disruption of the helminth metabolism, including energy depletion, which immobilises and then kills the susceptible helminth.

Pharmacokinetics:

Following oral administration, albendazole is absorbed and completely metabolised. Cmax of albendazole sulfoxide, its main metabolite, is reached after approximately 2½ hours.

T% of the sulfoxide in the plasma is 8½ hours and is eliminated mainly via the urine.

Uses of Zolat

Generally, Zolat is used to expel worms from both humans and animals. It is therefore worms expeller.

It is used in the following conditions:

  1. Echinococcus multilocularis and E. granulosus infections prior to or not amenable to surgery
  2. Neurocysticercosis
  3. Ascariasis, hookworm infections, strongyloidiasis, enterobiasis, trichuriasis, trichostrongyliasis, and capillariasis;
  4. Filariasis

Dosage of Zolat

Cystic echinococcosis, by mouth

  • Adult over 60 kg, 800 mg daily in 2 divided doses for 28 days followed by 14 tablet-free days;
  • Adult less than 60 kg, 15 mg/kg daily in two divided doses (to a maximum daily dose of 800 mg) for 28 days followed by 14 tablet-free days; up to 3 courses may be given.

Alveolar echinococcosis, by mouth

  • As for cystic echinococcosis, but treatment cycles may need to be continued for months or years.

Neurocysticercosis, by mouth,

  • Adult over 60 kg, 800 mg daily in 2 divided doses for 8-30 days;
  • Adult less than 60 kg, 15 mg/kg daily in two divided doses (to a maximum daily dose of 800 mg) for 8-30 days.

Ascariasis, hookworm infections, enterobiasis, and trichostrongyliasis, by mouth,

  • Adult and child over 2 years, 400 mg as a single dose

Trichuriasis, by mouth,

  • Adult and child over 2 years, 400 mg as a single dose (for moderate infections) or 400 mg daily for 3 days (severe infections)

Strongyloidiasis, by mouth,

Adult and child over 2 years, 400 mg once or twice daily for 3 days.

Capillariasis, by mouth,

Adult and child over 2 years, 400 mg daily for 10 days.

Child dose

Ascariasis, hookworm infections, enterobiasis, and trichostrongyliasis, by mouth,

  • Adult and child over 2 years, 400 mg as a single dose;
  • Child 12 months-2 years, 200 mg as a single dose.

Trichuriasis, by mouth,

  • Adult and child over 2 years, 400 mg as a single dose (for moderate infections) or 400 mg daily for 3 days (severe infections);
  • Child 12 months-2 years, 200 mg as a single dose (for moderate infections) or 200 mg initially then 100 mg twice daily for 3 days (severe infections).

Strongyloidiasis, by mouth,

  • Adult and child over 2 years, 400 mg once or twice daily for 3 days.

Capillariasis, by mouth,

  • Adult and child over 2 years, 400 mg daily for 10 days

NOTE:

No fasting or purging is required. To be chewed, swallowed or crushed and mixed with food

Dosage in renal impairment:

No dosage adjustment is required; however patients with evidence of renal impairment should be carefully monitored

Dosage in hepatic impairment:

Since albendazole is rapidly metabolised by the liver to the primary pharmacologically active metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide, hepatic impairment would be expected to have significant effects on the pharmacokinetics of albendazole sulfoxide.

Patients with abnormal liver function test results (transaminases) prior to commencing albendazole therapy should be carefully monitored.

Side Effects of Zolat

The following are common side effects associated with Albendazole:

  • Gastrointestinal disturbances,
  • Headache,
  • Dizziness;
  • Increases in liver enzymes;
  • Reversible alopecia;
  • Rash;
  • Fever;
  • Leukopenia;
  • Rarely, pancytopenia; allergic shock if cyst leakage; convulsions and meningism in cerebral disease.

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to albendazole or any of the excipients.

Zolat Use in Pregnancy and lactation

Zolat is compatible with pregnancy. It is, however, recommended that when possible, it should be avoided during the first trimester due to limited experience with its use during this period.

Albendazole and mebendazole are benzimidazole derivatives shown to be teratogenic in animal studies. Although there is some evidence to suggest that the use of mebendazole in pregnancy is not associated with an increased incidence of adverse effects on the fetus, neither albendazole nor mebendazole should be used during the first trimester of pregnancy to treat nematode infections.

Both drugs are contraindicated for the treatment of cestode infections (tapeworms) in pregnancy (praziquantel or niclosamide is recommended); furthermore, pregnancy should be excluded before treatment with albendazole and patients should be advised to use nonhormonal contraception during, and for 1 month after, treatment.

Albendazole is secreted into the breast milk. However, there is insufficient data on its safety to the infant. It is reserved for specific compelling indications and breastfeeding can continue if it is only short-term.

Drugs interactions with Zolat

Praziquantel: Increased plasma levels of the active metabolite of albendazole, albendazole sulfoxide.

Ritonavir, phenytoin, carbamazepine and phenobarbital: May reduce plasma concentrations of the active metabolite of albendazole, albendazole sulfoxide.

Clinical significance not known, but may result in decreased efficacy, especially in the treatment of systemic helminth infections.

How to take Zolat

For Oral use.

To be chewed, swallowed or crushed and mixed with food No fasting or purging is required.

Suspension:

Shake well before use

How to store Zolat

Tablets:

Store below 30°C.

Suspensions:

Store below 30°C and protect from direct sunlight. Shake well before use.